About the book
This is an integrated social science series for classes 6, 7 and 8. It conforms and adheres to the guidelines of National Curriculum Framework (NCF). The books in this series aim to ensure the all round development of the children. The books put an end to rote learning and try to evaluate a child’s progress through a process of continuous assessment with the help of non-formal methods like assignments, projects, Surveys, experiments, interviews, quizzes, etc.
The detailed theme of the book, covering each section is being given to show a glimpse of the book.
UNIT I: OUR PASTS-I HISTORY
The knowledge about the Aryans comes to us mainly through the Vedas. Let the students learn what the Vedas tell us. The Aryan Settlements of the later Vedic Age gave way to the formation of large kingdoms called Janapadas and Mahajanapadas. The students are provided with a general idea of the rise of an Empire under the Mauryas. The Stone Pillars are the best specimens of the Mauryan Art and Sculpture.
The students have been familiarized with the Sangam Literature that gives a detailed account of the history, society and culture of the kingdoms of South India.
A brief account of the age of Guptas and the period during which Harshavardhana and the Chalukya and Pallav rulers ruled will give the students an idea of the art and culture that flourished in different parts and regions of the country. Our country is of enormous size and diversity. We should work towards evolving greater unity amidst this great diversity.
UNIT II: THE EARTH: OUR HABITAT GEOGRAPHY
The main aim is to acquaint the students with concepts necessary to understand the world and global environment issues. The unique position of the earth in solar system has been explained with reference to other planets in our solar system in Chapter 1. The two motions of the earth, the concept of longitudes and latitudes, and formation of seasons have been explained with the help of globe and other diagrams. The skill of map reading has been explained using the scales and sketches in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. The inter-relationship of the four realms of the earth, i.e., lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere have been dealt in Chapter 5 and 6, describing the positions of various continents and oceans along with their salient features. Chapter 7 contains the board physiographic divisions of India comprising the mountains, northern plains, plateaus of peninsular India, coastal plains, deserts and two groups of Islands. The Indian climate along with natural vegetation and wildlife have been discussed in chapter 8.
UNIT III: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE -I CIVICS
The Unit is divided into 10 Chapters.
- Chapter 1 displays the diversities of Indian life. It focuses on the fact that Indians speak different languages and have faith in different religions, but they have cultural and political unity.
- Chapter 2 explains the difference between Diversity and Inequality. Our Constitution directs us to respect diversity, but it proclaims Equality as the bedrock of Indian polity. The country should be proud of the Constitution-makers who enacted that “the State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.”
- Chapter 3 enables students to gain a sense of why Government is required. Universal Adult Suffrage is an outstanding feature of our Constitution. It swept away in one stroke all undemocratic conditions laid down in the past to be eligible for Voting.
- Chapter 4 analyses the decision-making process in a democratic government. It would tell you about the Suffragette Movement launched in Europe and America for the extension of the voting rights to women. The Movement succeeded. After the First World War many Acts were enacted in different countries that gave voting rights to women.
- Chapter 5 provides an overview of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in India. The Panchayati Raj is a three-tier system: Panchayats at the Village level, the Block or Panchayat Samitis at Block level and a Zila Parishad at the district level. The discussion in this Chapter is confined to the Panchayati Raj bodies at village level alone.
- Chapter 6 deals with Panchayati Raj Institutions at the Block and District levels. It shows how the various levels of local administration are all interconnected.
- Chapter 7 deals with Urban Local-Self Government, the municipal bodies, their elections and decision-making structures existing in urban India.
- Chapter 8 develops an awareness of Rural Administration. It focuses mainly on land disputes and shows what role is being played by the Patwari, the other revenue officers and the local police in resolving such disputes. The New Inheritance Act that entitled daughters and the widow equal shares in the land and property of the deceased comes as a boon to females of the country.
- Chapter 9 discusses various types of Rural Livelihoods in detail. It emphasises differences between the middle farmers, the landless labourers and large farmers.
- Chapter 10 shows the differences between various occupations in urban India. It explains the differences between those who are self-employed and others engaged in regular and casual professions or employments.
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